7.26.2011

Investigative Psychology – What Does It Mean And How Can It Help Law Enforcement Investigations? Evaluating The IP System And Detective Part XIV “The Interrogation”




By Lawrence W. Daly, MSc

The news in Kent, Washington yesterday was the shoot-out at the car show down the street from where I reside. Across the ocean there were 90 people shot and killed in Norway. In Grand Prairie, Texas five people were shot at a roller rink. In Western Baltimore, two people were shot a mile near Liberty Reservoir. A nuclear scientist was shot dead in Iran.

Other media attention was on where is Casey Anthony hiding at this time and how much money will she be making on giving an interview to tell all. Missing from the news for the second week in a row is former Congressman Anthony Weiner. It appears he is either in hiding, at home with his pregnant wife and/or at a sexual addiction treatment center for having sexual problems in his life.

John Boehner and President Obama are still in a tug-a-war over who will have the correct solution for the debt problem. The finger pointing is getting both sides nowhere. Each inside leak over the debt negotiations allege there is a lot of yelling, but no resolution. Although sources say there will be a resolution in the immediate future.

So in a week of surprises and sorrows, the world continues to turn. In the back yards of many neighborhoods, sexual offenders are stalking out their next victims. Although 6% of the sexual offenders who sexually assault children are still a potential danger to children under the age of 12. Parents should be safeguarding their children by not allowing them to travel from one house to the next without an escort.

How many stories will parents have to listen to about an innocent child who was abducted in the grocery store as her mother turned to deal with a distraction purposely put on to kidnap the child?

The public has had a lot to listen to and see this past week internationally and nationally. There are other issues which should be mentioned but nothing that one can’t read in a newspaper or surf the Internet for additional stories. So what is the point of this lead into an article which is to deal with ‘interrogations’? The answer is simple; someone for the most part of the incidences which occurred over the past seven days will involve law enforcement officials interrogating individual(s) who committed serious crimes against people. Shooting and killing 90 people, the majority of them being children should come to court quickly and efficiently so the right type of justice can be given to Anders Behring Breivik the man who murdered 90 people in Norway.
                                                           

Interrogation is defined as, “the act of being questioned; an inquiry; to ask questions of (a person), sometimes to seek answers or information that the person questioned considers personal or secret; to examine by questions; question formally: The police captain interrogated the suspect.”

So why should the law enforcement officials interrogate an individual? The answer, because the individual probably committed a crime and the law enforcement officials want to ascertain what the alleged sexual offender knows; why he committed the crime; when he committed the crime; how many times did he commit the crime on someone else; and etc.


In interrogating an alleged sexual offender, there are numerous approaches an IP Detective can take. The IP Detectives who come into the interrogation room have about one minute in order to evaluate the alleged sexual offender. This evaluation will most likely determine the outcome of the interrogation.



                                                                                                           
The IP Detective needs to profile the typologies of what type of sexual offender is he/she dealing with. Let us examine the two top child sexual abuse offenders and then determine the type of interrogation steps the IP Detective needs to apply.
           
The Situational Child Molesters (SCM) does not establish which child they will molest. The Situational Child Molester molests children because the situation creates the opportunity. When I was a Detective in the Special Assault Unit a man lost his wife and after two months of the wife being gone, he turned to his daughter for his sexual needs. The daughter was 15 years old at the time of the sexual assaults.
           
The Preferential Child Molesters (PCM) are different in they have a preference for a specific child. The PCM may molest anywhere from 10, to hundreds to thousands of children in his/her lifetime, depending on the definition of what the definition of sexual assault is defined as. The IP Detective knows that the PCM sexual activity is repetitive and predictable (Lanning, 2001). When I was a Detective in the Special Assault Unit, I had a man who had written on how to molest pre-pubescent boys. The book even suggested performing a surgery he thought he could do which would enlarge the penis of a boy under the age of 12. He was fixed and preferred boys under 12.
The difference between the SCM and PCM is their sexual activity is easier to identify and predict. The IP Detective then needs to isolate each of their backgrounds, so he/she has information to provide to the reactive patrol personnel and other police agencies in the community i.e. local, county and state police.

Ken Lanning (2001), a former FBI Behavioral Agent, defined the characteristics of the PCM. The PCM characteristics are as follows according to Agent Lanning:

A preferential sex offender can usually be identified by the behaviors noted below.

Long-Term and Persistent Pattern of Behavior
• begins pattern in early adolescence
• is willing to commit time, money, and energy
• commits multiple offenses
• makes ritual- or need-driven mistakes

Specific Sexual Interests
• manifests paraphilic preferences (may be multiple)
• focuses on defined sexual interests and victim characteristics
• centers life around preferences
• rationalizes sexual interests

Well-Developed Techniques
• evaluates experiences
• lies and manipulates, often skillfully
• has method of access to victims
• is quick to use modern technology (e.g., computer, video) for sexual needs and purposes

Fantasy-Driven Behavior
• collects theme pornography
• collects paraphernalia (i.e., souvenirs, videotapes)
• records fantasies


The Preferential Child Molester has two subtypes:

1.      The Seductive Pedophile is also known as the fixated type. They are usually homosexual men that prefer male victims. Their seduction process involves buying the future victim gifts or helping them with various things. They became a friend the victim can lean on. As the bond grows sexual innuendo is slowly brought in to the relationship. The may show them pornographic pictures or videos. The aim to confuse their victim about sex and then once the abuse begins they blame the victim. They often have friends that are also pedophiles and they network. This network uses the Internet to find victims and search for pornography. They have a list of potential victims and they know where to find them.

2.      The Sadistic Pedophile is grotesque when it comes to sexual preferences. They severely abuse their victims and sometimes kill them. They search for the perfect victim and they will travel long distances to gain access to the victim. They stalk and then attack and/or abduct their victim. Their abductions are typically designed to confuse the parents and the authorities. This type of pedophile is usually intelligent and middle to upper class. They like to be on the move and they like change.
The Situational Child Molester has three subtypes:

1.      The Regressed Pedophile has the most balanced life of all the subtypes. They seek female victims and they enjoy the seduction process. This subtype will use child pornography as part of the seduction process and they use the Internet to find vulnerable victims. Female children are preferred, but they will go after a defenseless person if the stress in their life becomes too much. Regressed Pedophiles have many potential victims in mind. They take their time and move on the child when they feel safe. Although this type of pedophile is more stable than the others, they usually have insecurity issues and they have a hard time having successful interactions with other adults. This subtype prefers oral and vaginal intercourse.

2.      The Indiscriminate Pedophiles are calm and often charismatic. They are more dangerous because they will try anything sexually and their main concern is their sexual fun at the victim’s expense. The seduction process is long and tedious. Great care is taken to bond with their future victim. The Indiscriminate Pedophile enjoys child pornography and they want children as their victims. They try to get to know friends of their victims and those children are usually targeted as their next victim.

3.      The Immature Pedophile comes across as strange or weird. This type is more naive and less manipulative than the other groups. Their victims come from their own neighborhoods and although they have a preferred age range, they will deviate from it. They are happy fondling their victims, but they prefer anal sex and oral sex. The Immature Pedophile is less stable than the other subtypes and they tend to have a lot of stress to deal with (Child Safe Tips).

As indicated there is a lot for the IP Detective to learn prior to walking into the interrogation room. Each child sexual abuse offender has his/her own preference in the child they select and the many reasons why.

In any and all child sexual assaults which are reported, the IP Detective has the ultimate responsibility in interrogating the sexual offender. Someone has to walk into the interrogation room and ask this individual who is in custody, why he/she touched the child in a sexual manner. You wouldn’t believe the excuses I use to hear when I was a Detective in the Special Assault Unit.  One PCM told me that the five year old girl just wouldn’t quit wiggling her bottom when she would walk by him.  He continued, “What did you expect me to do, the child just turns me on.”

Tomorrow, I will continue with the many methods and techniques the IP Detective needs to utilize when dealing with the SCM and PCM. In the meantime, never under estimate these mentally unhealthy individuals.  They are difficult to treat and their recidivism rate is approximately 70% national wide. Do you think your children are safe? I don’t.

                                                                                
 Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Investigations Part 1
 By: Lawrence W. Daly                                            
 Webinar Time- September 22, 2011 1:00 pm -2:00pm
 Registration Fee - $99.00                                                                           


                                                                               

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